April'2011

CONTENTS:

1) NEXT GENERATION MONITORING, ANALYSIS AND CONTROL FOR THE FUTURE SMART CONTROL CENTRE
(pp. 62-66)

Authors: Mrs. Chandarani Sutar, Dr. K. S. Verma, Mr. Ajay Vikram Singh

Abstract - The term Smart Grid describes the idea of the future power system. The shortage of fossil primary energy resources has led - under introduction of deregulation and liberalization of the electricity market - to this new concept of the power system. More local generation, especially from renewable, are already present in the power systems. This change in generation has influenced the structure of the power system from a centralized to decentralized one and is the main challenge in its planning and operation. This paper includes the general perspective of the Smart Grid. The definition of Smart Grid is discussed and the important elements of it are presented. Furthermore, the distributed energy resources such as wind, PV, CHP are characterized and their role in the future power system related to Advanced metering Infrastructure ,home area network ,wide area measurement and control and synchronized  phasor measurement units.

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2)
MONITORING SYSTEM OF TRAIN TRAVEL
(pp. 67-73)

Author: Mochamad Karjadi

Abstract - The train is one means of public transportation, but until now still common rail accident which is very harmful for both passengers and train operating company itself. Information last location of a train running to know in order to perform traffic arrangements train properly. In addition, for the arrival of trains at station can estimated more accurately. The location of the train can be identified by using the Global Positioning System receiver (GPS) mounted on the rail and also CCTV. For the position of GPS and image can be known by the station continuously, then the GPS position data and also the image of the train drivers need to be sent from the train to the station automatically. In the microcontroller artifacts GPS-GSM-GPRS module as an integrated circuit that easily programmed for various applications, may be an alternative to manage the delivery process GPS data and image to the central server station database with GPRS. In this paper, utilizing the technology of Global Positioning System (GPS) in the operational railway system on PT. Kereta Api Indonesia (PT. KAI). Information obtained from the position of data processing train will be delivered via the internet, so that information can be received by the users which includes the PT KAI, passengers or others who need real-time.

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3)
4-BIT & 8-BIT FULL ADDER BY USING MODIFIED 8 TRANSISTORS
(pp. 74-77)

Authors: N. M. Chore, R. N. Mandavgane

Abstract - In this paper, a Modified low-voltage low power 8T one bit full adder circuit is proposed. The new design is by combining XOR gates. The current work proposes the design of the improved full adder using 8T which acquires less area and it most suitable for the cascading application such as Ripple Carry Adder. With the lowest number of transistor count.  Based on the simulation results performed by Microwind Version 3.1, the new low voltage design consumes minimal power in 90 nm processes as supply voltage 1.2V and 180 nm processes as supply voltage 2V. This paper shows that carry signal voltage increased and Id(max) decreased by 48% & 22% for 180nm and 40% & 30% for 90nm technology. By using this one bit adder we design 4-bit and 8-bit adder modules. This module is compared with the 4-bit and 8-bit CMOS full adder. The result shows that our modified full adder is better than the CMOS full adder in performance.

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4)
PHYSICAL INSIGHT INTO THE GAIN AND BANDWIDTH ENHANCEMENT OF U TYPE MICROSTRIP PATCH WITH AIR SUBSTRATE
(pp. 78-84)

Authors: A. Suman, R. K. Mistry, N. N. Dutta, P. Chatterjee, S. Chattopadhyay

Abstract - A simple and novel U type microstrip patch antenna with air substrate is proposed and thoroughly investigated. It shows appreciable enhancement in gain (about 11 dBi) along with significant improvement in bandwidth (about 10%) compared to conventional microstrip patch. The physical reason for such improvement in gain and bandwidth is thoroughly explained. Simulated electric field distribution on the entire antenna structure is also presented to explain such behavior of the proposed antenna.

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5)
INTELLIGENT VEHICLE PARAMETERS CONTROL SYSTEM WITH ADVANCED AUTOMATIC LANE CONTROL USING RISC MACHINES
(pp. 85-90)

Authors: S. S. Tawani, Prof. U. A. Rane

Abstract- Almost decades earlier in automobile industries most of the vehicles or we can say all of the vehicles are basically controlled through the conventional mechanical control systems. But drawback of such control system is that their complexity is quite higher, has slower response time and requires regular maintenance. And such drawback makes the vehicles unsuitable to stand in today’s environment. Later developments in the era of automation using integrated circuits and microprocessor based design and control techniques have had modernized the way of controlling the engine parameters like ignition, combustion and etc. But as far as vehicles are concerned along with inside parameter control there is need of controlling the external parameters also. To make the system more intelligent and advanced it is required to introduce some important developments that can help to promote not only the luxurious but also safety drive to the owner. The proposed system “Intelligent Vehicle Parameters Control System with Advanced Automatic Lane Control Using RISC Machines”, introduces a new trend in automobile industry.

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6) DISTRIBUTED PROGRAM SLICING FOR OBJECT ORIENTED JAVA PROGRAM WITH FINITE STATE MACHINE MODEL
(pp. 91-95)

Authors: C.Saravanakumar, C.Arun

AbstractAs software application grows larger and larger and becoming more complex, the program maintenance activities such as debugging and testing consumes an increasing amount of available resources for the software development. In order to cope up with this increased complexity, the concept of program slicing was developed. The concept of program slicing plays an important role in bringing an error free end product. The task of computing the program slices is called as the program slicing. So far, the program slicing could have been implemented over the centralized and the client server model. In centralized model, the slicing was applied in non-sharable programs and in the client server model all the slices were retrieved from the server. The client server model doesn’t support the slicing over the object oriented programs on the distributed environment. This paper proposes the slicing applied in a distributed manner in the form of local slicing and global slicing on object oriented programs. In local slicing, the client reads the required program from the server and in turn applies the slicing criteria and slices the relevant statement. In global slicing, the client passes the slicing criteria to the server, finds out the program, applies the slicing criteria, extracts the relevant statement, group them, and send back to the client. In future the slicing can be applied to the middleware technologies like RMI, CORBA, etc.

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7) MODIFIED SCHEMES FOR AUTHENTICATION BASED ON SHAPE AND TEXT
(pp. 96-101)

Authors: M. Sreelatha, M. Shashi

Abstract Textual passwords are more vulnerable to attacks like eves dropping, dictionary attacks, shoulder surfing and hidden cameras. Simple graphical authentication schemes which are alternative to textual-based schemes are also vulnerable. Authentication schemes using both graphical and textual passwords are preferable than graphical schemes alone or textual schemes alone. The hybrid password authentication schemes are resistant to eves dropping, shoulder surfing and secret cameras. Some advanced schemes are proposed for hybrid authentication scheme which is based on shape and text to make it more secure.

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8) A NOVEL APPROACH: RECOGNITION OF DEVANAGARI HANDWRITTEN NUMERALS
(pp. 102- 107)

Authors: Mahesh Jangid, Renu Dhir and Rajneesh Rani

Abstract Recognition of Indian languages scripts is challenging problems. In Optical Character Recognition [OCR], a character or symbol to be recognized can be machine printed or handwritten characters/numerals. There are several approaches that deal with problem of recognition of numerals/character depending on the type of feature extracted and different way of extracting them. In this paper an automatic recognition system for isolated Handwritten Devanagari Numerals has been proposed. The proposed system relies on a feature extraction technique based on recursive subdivision of the character image so that the resulting sub- images at each iteration have balanced numbers of foreground pixels as possible. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used for classification. Accuracy of 98.98% has been obtained by using standard dataset provided by ISI (Indian Statistical Institute) Kolkata.

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9) COMPARING CENTRALISED AND DISTRIBUTED SERVERS USING JAVA SOCKETS FOR SMALL SCALE IMPLEMENTATION
(pp. 108-113)

Authors: Arun Singh, Ajay k Sharma and Ashish Kumar

Abstract—This paper describes a File Server supporting multiple formats like txt, docx, pdf, htm, mp3, mp4, flv etc, implemented in java sockets, based on TCP protocol.The file server is composed in two scenarios one in Centralised File Server and other is Distributed.The paper analyse and compare the performance and bandwidth utilisation of both type of servers with a contrast of 1.4M.Also contribute to security and performance enhancement during client server communication. 

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10) ACCURATE CAD FORMULATION FOR RESONANT FREQUENCY OF EQUILATERAL TRIANGULAR  MICROSTRIP  ANTENNA WITH AND WITHOUT AIR GAP
(pp. 114-121)

Authors: A.K.Saha, R.Nag, R.Upadhyay, A. Adhikari and S.Chattopadhyay

AbstractThe resonant modes and characteristics of an equilateral triangular microstrip patch antenna with a variable air gap are theoretically and experimentally examined. Effect of varying parameters like dielectric constant of substrate, size of patch, substrate thickness and the effect of air gap height are the important factors addressed and an improved computer aided design is presented.

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11) IMPROVEMENT OF VOLTAGE PROFILE IN POWER SYSTEM NETWORK WITH SVC AND UPFC BY USING OPTIMAL GENETIC ALGORITHM
(pp. 122-126)

Authors: Sunil Kumar J, Dinakara Prasad Reddy P, V.Leela Lakshmi, Rajanikant.V

Abstract— With the increase in power demand, operation and planning of large interconnected power system are becoming more and more complex, so power system will become less secure. Operating environment, conventional planning and operating methods can leave power system exposed to instabilities. Voltage instability is one of the major problems facing by the electrical industry, which have result in a major blackout.  Moreover, with the fast development of electrical industry and the restructuring, the problem of voltage stability has become a major concern in deregulated power systems. To maintain such systems, it is desirable to plan suitable measures to improve power quality of the system and increase voltage stability margins. FACTS devices can regulate the active and reactive power control as well as adaptive to voltage-magnitude control simultaneously because of their flexibility and fast control characteristics. Placement of FACTS devices in suitable location can lead to control in line flow and maintain bus voltages in desired level and so improve voltage stability margins. An IEEE 30 bus system has been taken simulation results been proposed.

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12)
AN APPROACH TO SOFTWARE TESTING COST ESTIMATION IN BLACK-BOX ENVIRONMENT
(pp. 127-136)

Authors: Kiran Kumar J and Prof. A. Ananda Rao

Abstract— Software testing is a vital and expensive activity that occupies a large portion of  the overall cost of  the software.  Many papers in the literature reported that the project schedules and project costs overrun by a large percent due to inaccurate effort and cost estimation. The  software  testing  cost  estimation  is one of  the most  important managerial  activities  related  to resource  allocation,  project  planning  and  to  control  overall  cost  of  the  software  development.  Several models  have  been proposed by  various  authors  to  address  the  issue  of  effort  and  cost  estimation. And, most  of  them  are  directly or  indirectly depend  on  the  source code  of  the  software  product. But majority  of  the  testing done  in  software  organizations  is black-box testing, where  the source code of  the software  is not available  to  the  testing teams.   In  this paper, an alternative approach  to software testing cost estimation by considering various testing activities involved in black-box testing environment is presented. This  proposed  approach  does  not  depend  on  the  source  code  of  the  software  product  to  estimate  the  testing  cost.  This approach is applied on four real-time case studies and found that this approach provides more accurate estimation of the testing effort and cost, and helps the software managers in controlling the overrun of the project schedules and overrun of project costs.

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