1) An Effective Technique using Non Local Means and Morphological Operations to Enhance Degraded Historical Document
(pp. 335-344)

Authors: B Gangamma, Srikanta Murthy K

Abstract - Ancestors used many ways to preserve their heritage by inscribing on the hard and long lasting material. Stone carvings, metal and palm leaf inscriptions are usually used for preserving the useful information related to religion, science, education, culture etc. Usually these documents are older than several centuries and over times become embarrass and the writing become indecipherable. Image processing techniques can help to enhance these documents to facilitate deciphering process. The proposed method uses a hybrid approach using combination of Morphological operations, a set theory approach and Non Local Means (NLM) filter to enhance the degraded document. Morphological operations are used for extracting image components such as, shape, edges, boundaries, skeletons, etc. NLM filter uses similarity measurement of neighborhood windows and adjusts each pixel value with a weighted average of structurally similar neighborhood. The method is compared with Average, and Gaussian filters and results are proved to be better.


2) Effect on Magnetic Field on Ozone Layer  

(pp. 345-348)

Authors: Prof. Z. Burnet, T. B. Schol and M. S. A. Azaami

Abstract - An application of magnetic field, B to a discharge chamber under transverse electric field, E is studied, with the objective to view the effect of magnetic field to the electrons in a plasma. Theory of gas discharge stated that this configuration will create a helical motion to electrons due to gradient drift or gyration. Experimental result from previous research showed, however that this magnetic field has no effect to corona current, in contrast to the theory that the helical motion will increase the ionisation collision process and cause more electron emissions. To verify the result, application of B effect to ozone chamber is constructed under AC and pulsed power supply, and the result shows that the B does not influence gas discharge characteristic agreeing with the result from previous author. 



3) An Efficient Routing Method for Ad Hoc Networks
(pp. 349-354)

Authors: Mohinder Gupta

Abstract - To secure the data in the ad hoc network the intermediate nodes with in a route are created on the basis of their currently known reputation (trust) index. However, a node which was earlier trust worthy may no longer to be so as it becomes selfish due to loss of power. This selfish behavior problem is quite common in ad hoc networks and the literature contains many strategies to deal with them. This paper presents a novel routing strategy to deal with such nodes. The strategy assumes that the selfish nodes are not malicious and obligated to speak truth about their current energy level.


4) The Information Economy, Information and Technology
(pp. 355-358)

Authors: Tahsin Marami

Abstract - Information is a key strategic asset and Information assets are perhaps the most important type of asset in the knowledge-based economy. The Information economy mainly defined by the extension of information and communication technologies. The rapid growth of telecommunications and information technologies in the past decade is shifting the global market from a technology-based economy to an information-based economy. Countries with highly developed telecommunications infrastructure can adjust to this rapid change and take advantage of the enormous new opportunities. This paper describes some of the impacts of the information and communication technologies on the information economy.


5) Cellular Mobile Systems Using a Multipath search
(pp. 359-363)

Authors: Tamal Chachmi and Zubayer Mehran

Abstract - This paper presents a new algorithm for solving the frequency assignment problem in cellular mobile systems. The proposed algorithm is based on a Taboo search starting with a sequential local search method. Instead of using a minimum number of frequencies and reusing them a maximum number of times, our algorithm assembles to maximum the frequencies while avoiding deadlock. This algorithm introduces a powerful sequential local search method to start with an initial solution respecting all constraints, and minimizing the costs of employment. This initial solution is used to construct a global solution by permutation of all frequencies of a constraint link in its frequency domain in order to obtain the smallest maximum frequency used and the overall cost of such a solution. The algorithm reduces both the search space, the order of variables and values and avoids cycles through by the use of a temporary Taboo list. Our approach has been tested on standard benchmark problems called Philadelphia benchmarks of frequency assignment problem. The results obtained are equivalent to those of current methods. Moreover, our approach shows more efficiency in terms of flexibility and autonomy.


6) " Manuscript Deleted Due to Copyright Violation "

Authors:  N/A

Abstract - N/A